The Neolithic means “new stone age”. The Neolithic and Paleolithic were both in the stone age, but there is a distinction. The Paleolithic happened before agriculture was established and people lived more settled lives in the Neolithic. In the Neolithic, people discovered how to grow crops like grain (in the middle east), and domesticate more animals as livestock. They also leaned to breed animals and crops to produce better ones of each! Another big thing they did was settle down and live a more settled life in more complex communities. Neolithic peoples started to be more like us, and less of what we think of as “cavemen”. (Most “cavemen” didn’t actually live in caves in the Paleolithic!) As the Neolithic progressed, cultures grew all around rivers in the middle east like the Mesopotamian civilizations! They made huge monuments and built up big cities! Also, as societies got bigger and more complex, things like writing evolved to manage such large and complex societies. Also, things like government evolved. In little villages, people could all have a near-equal say in things, but in a huge city like in Mesopotamia, a hierarchy starts to evolve to manage all those people! The Neolithic was the transition into Antiquity.