Neanderthals were close relatives of modern humans. It is theorized that neanderthals were on their own evolutionary path alongside humans. Neanderthals had slightly different anatomy than modern humans. They were shorter and more robust than us, and had a wider pelvis. Their chest flared out and they didn’t have a waist. Also, their skull was different and they had a less domed skull than we do, more oval-like. They had a more pronounced brow ridge and larger brain case. Their arms and legs were more robust too. Their anatomy may have contributed to their downfall. Their short robust bodies couldn’t run as long as modern humans to hunt down prey. They were more like ambush predators. Also, they were less flexible to environmental changes than we are. Neanderthals hunted by directly attacking the prey themselves, but modern humans invented throwing spears and such to bring down large prey from a distance. Modern humans may have out-hunted the neanderthal’s prey. Modern humans probably had more complex speech too, as reconstructions of a neanderthal larynx couldn’t make as much sounds as ours can. Mentally, neanderthals are theorized to not comprehend abstractions like modern humans. They seemed to have made less artwork and done less of behaviors that suggest that they created symbolic items. Many theories were made to try to explain why neanderthals died out.